When and how a cell knows which signal is essential to adapt to changing environments? This question represents the basis of receptor pharmacology and signal transduction research. Our session includes research on understanding how a cell integrates sensing to signaling and transduces these signals from the plasma membrane to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and to the nucleus. It consist of a complex series of intracellular cascades mediated by modulation of G-protein-coupled receptors, phospholipids, calcium, or protein phosphorylation. Understanding these processes might provide a detailed roadmap of how cells work, and ultimately of human physiology and pathologies. Therefore, this knowledge is essential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and metabolic disorders. These research questions fit well in the theme of the FIGON Drugs and Microbes, since it links the external signals to potential therapies against human diseases.